Washington: India is hesitant to implement all aspects of US and European Union sanctions against Iran, a Congressional report has said, attributing this to New Delhi's reliance on Tehran with regards to Afghanistan and the historic, cultural and economic ties between the two nations.
"India is implementing UN sanctions against Iran but its cultural, economic, and historic ties-as well as its strategic need for access to Afghanistan- have made India hesitant to adopt all aspects of US and EU sanctions on Iran," the independent and bipartisan Congressional Research Service (CRS) said in its latest report on Iran.
"India first signalled greater support for sanctioning Iran in late 2012 when its central bank ceased using a Tehran-based regional body, the Asian Clearing Union, to handle transactions with Iran," said the report.
Apparently perceiving international sentiment for tightening sanctions on Iran, India has been reducing its dependence on Iranian oil, CRS said. Since 2008, India has reduced its imports of Iranian oil by volume and as a percentage of India's total oil imports, to the point where, by the end of 2012, Iran was only supplying about 10 percent of India's oil imports, down from over 16 percent in 2008, it said.
"Despite requiring significant investment to switch over refineries that handle Iranian crude, Deputy Oil Minister R P N Singh told India's parliament on May 15, 2012, that India would cut Iranian imports by another 11 percent from May 2012 until the end of India's fiscal year in March 2013," the CRS told US lawmakers on its latest report on Iran.
"The Obama Administration welcomed the pledge, and India received an exemption from P L 112-81 sanctions on June 11, 2012. Indian refiners have cut buys from Iran largely in line with the government's requests, although some months might show fluctuations as batches of oil shipments arrive. India's exemption was renewed on December 7, 2012," it noted.
CRS said India appears to be distancing itself from participation in the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline project. India reportedly has been concerned about the security of the pipeline, the location at which the gas would be officially transferred to India, pricing of the gas, tariffs, and the source in Iran of the gas to be sold.
If Iran resolves its disputes with the international community, India may envision an alternative to the pipeline project as a means of tapping into Iran's vast gas resources.
"During high-level economic talks in early July 2010, Iranian and Indian officials reportedly raised the issue of constructing an underwater natural gas pipeline, which would avoid going through Pakistani territory. However, such a route would presumably be much more expensive to construct than would be an overland route," it said.
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